Between birth and the end of the preschool period, children acquire a host of skills that are precursors to formal reading. These skills, called emergent literacy skills, include phonological awareness (children's awareness of the sound segments of language) and written language awareness (children's awareness of the forms, features, and functions of written language). This column focuses on written language awareness, and describes how early childhood educators can use print
An Individualized Education Program, commonly known as an IEP, is a document that is developed, reviewed, and revised in an IEP meeting and serves as a communication vehicle between parents and their child's school district. Ultimately, it is a written record of the decisions reached by IEP Team members, including parents, at the IEP meeting. To develop an IEP that effectively meets the unique needs of the child requires Team members to collaborate effectively. What are some
"Your son is reading disabled."
"Your daughter has attention deficit disorder." These words can alter the parents' view of their child and his academic, social, and emotional future. These words can make parents feel fearful, anxious, and helpless. Once spoken, these words can change the family's dynamic as parents expend their energy on helping their child cope. Once spoken, these words can force parents to devote ever-increasing amounts of time to their child's learning pr
Making and sustaining friendships is an important social-emotional competence for all children. After all, friendships fulfill many personal needs including companionship, intimacy, self-esteem, and problem-solving. The importance of friendships is supported by a lot of research and by clinical observations. For example, children without friends are often judged to be poorly adjusted and unhappy. Some children seem to know how to function in social situations intuitively-prod
The most commonly practiced method of writing instruction is called the writing process. Typically this process includes five stages that writers work through when creating a piece of writing. These stages are: prewriting drafting revising editing publishing In this column I will explain the prewriting stage and how teachers and parents can support writers during this step of the writing process. During prewriting, writers begin to collect their thoughts and additional inform
Teachers often complain that reading and learning evaluations provide them with little new information. Often, they comment: "I knew this all along. These scores don't help me choose the right materials or design instruction. What a waste of time and energy. Now what do I do?" If you frequently find yourself in this situation, here's a key to solving the problem. Prevent it—prevent it by asking the right questions. When you request a reading or learning evaluation to help a s
The term "arithmetic combinations" as well as the equivalent, but older term "basic math facts" refer to (a) the number combinations in addition and subtraction that result in sums and differences less than 20, and (b) the multiplication tables through 9x9 with their corresponding division facts. Research shows that students with learning disabilities (LD) are often weak in retrieving such arithmetic combinations from memory and using suitable counting strategies for figuring